Boucher, Georgie. “Fractured Identity and Agency and the Plays of Adrienne Kennedy.” Feminist Review 84 (2006): 84-103. JSTOR. Web. 30 March 2011.
- Author Boucher asserts that individuals with fractured identities are also subjects of de-essentialism and uses bi-racial characters from playwright Kennedy’s works to substantiate this claim. Boucher also uses Bhabha’s concept of the “stairwell identity” to state that there is no ‘simply black,’ or ‘simply white’ in cultural identity. A separate realm of identity where one can ‘oscillate between polars’ of identity as they choose also exists.
- Key Terms: Fractured Identity, mulatto/a, colonial, Essentialism, Black Feminism, interstitial subject, internal colonization, agency.
Esty, Joshua D. “Excremental Postcolonialism”. Contemporary Literature, Vol. 40. No. 1 (Spring, 1999), pp. 22-59. Print.
- Joshua D. Esty, in his article “Excremental Postcolonialism”, mainly argues that literary works that center on postcolonialism mainly work with the figurative “excrement”, the “waste”, that the colonizer left as a legacy to the colonized. I haven’t read through most of it, but it seems like a very useful secondary source for anyone in our class.
Johnson, Kevin R. “‘Melting Pot’ or ‘Ring of Fire’?: Assimilation and the Mexican-American Experience.” California Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 5 (October 1997), pp. 1259-1313. Print.
- Kevin R. Johnson, through this article, highlights the delicate balancing act that Mexican-Americans are forced to perform and endure. The United States of America is generally thought of as an immigrant’s haven – a place where people from any background can find opportunities for success. Many people have envisioned the U.S. as a cultural “melting pot.” Johnson, however, re-thinks and questions this “melting pot” metaphor by shedding a realistic light on it. He sees the immigrant experience as a “ring of fire,” as opposed to the popular notion of being assimilated and welcomed into a “melting pot.” Johnson also introduces this idea of “passing” as “White.” The temptation to “pass as White” comes from the notion that to be “white” is to be successful. This article can apply to nearly every work that we’ve read for this class.
Mignolo, Walter D. “Citizenship, Knowledge, and the Limits of Humanity.” American Literary History 18.2 (2006): 312-331. JSTOR. Web. 7 May 2011.
- Key Terms: Citizenships, knowledge, humanities, postmodernism, decolonization, modernity, coloniality, imperial oppression, globalization, post-colonialism.
Morgan, Nigel J., and Annette Pritchard. “Privileging the Male Gaze: Gendered Tourism Landscapes.” Annals of Tourism Research 27.4 (2000): 884-905. Web. 6 May. 2011.
- Authors Morgan and Pritchard argue that the tourism business is geared toward the heterosexual Western male who comes from a patriarchal society. This results in the over-sexualized depictions of locations in Asia, the Caribbean, or other common ports for Western military during wartime. The Male Gaze theory is applied to such depictions and it is argued that those who shape these images come from either a heterosexual Western male society, or one that is influenced by it. Masculinity is tied to images of rugged, rite of passage landscapes of the north as femininity is tied to the ‘virginal’ locations in need of discovery and dominance. The article also states this promotes the subjectification of female inhabitants to sexual roles for male tourist consumers in search of sex and even male inhabitants maintain a sense of dominance over female tourist consumers.
- Key Terms: The Male Gaze, heteropatriarchy, patriarchy, racialized landscape, The Orient, exoticism, gender, conquer, imperial, Western, consumerism, Third World, tourism.
Ochoa, Peggy. “The Historical Moments of Postcolonial Writing: Beyond Colonialism’s Binary.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 15.2 (1996): 221-229. JSTOR. Web. 5 May 2011.
- Ochoa argues against Gayatri Spivak’s statement “the subaltern cannot speak” – which implies colonized people have no power and no voice – even in a supposed postcolonial era. Ochoa discusses the limitation of the binaries of all categories of culture (ethnicity, gender, class, etc.) and states duality is a colonial line of thought. Those who exist in postcolonial mixed-identity societies obtain their own voice and empowerment in a self-defined space that Gloria Anzaldúa calls “mestiza” culture.
- Key Terms: colonialism, postcolonialism, subaltern, hegemony, cultural other, Essentialism, Manichean, binary, duality, mestiza consciousness, resistance.
Ramazani, Jahan. “The Wound of History: Walcott’s Omeros and the Postcolonial Poetics of Affliction.” Modern Language Association 112.3 (1997): 405-417. JSTOR. Web. 8 May 2011.
- Key Terms: affliction, post-colonial, hybridity, interethnic, polyvalent, decolonized.
Rodriguez, Richard. “Aria: Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood” (1982). Note: I could not properly cite this work because I did not have enough information to work with.
- “Aria: Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood” is an excerpt taken from Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez. Richard Rodriguez, the author and narrator, tells the story of how he came to learn English, and his relationship with and perception of language in general. He primarily believes, when he starts attending a neighborhood Roman Catholic School in Sacramento, that the new English language is a “public” language – a language that is reserved only for environments outside the home, namely the school. As a result, Rodriguez believes that his native Spanish is a private and family language. The purpose of Rodriguez’s recounting his mastering of the English language is to provide an argument against teaching English by using the students’ native languages. He mainly argues that, in order to learn English (and consequently, a new culture), one is required to forfeit something from the private sphere of life (the family). But he also claims that intimacy is not found in the words used within the private family sphere, but rather within the family members themselves.
Stefan, Anca. “Critical and Narrative Discourses on Post-colonialism: Chinua Achebe.” Petroleum- Gas University of Ploiesti Bulletin, Philology Series 61.2 (2009): 81-90. Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 May 2011.
- Key Terms: marginality, revisionism, post-colonial, logocentrism.
Yang, Geng, Qixue Zhang, and Qi Wang. “The Essence, Characteristics and Limitation of Post-Colonialism: From Karl Marx’s Point of View.” Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1.2 (2006): 279-294. JSTOR. Web. 7 May 2011.
- Key Terms: postmodernism, post-colonialism, modernity, orientalism, cultural hegemonism, Marxism, cultural hybridity.